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FEI 50th Anniversary
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The Federal Executive Institute is celebrating 50 years of service and leadership training. Below are a few pieces in a series from FEI that takes a look back at key moments in FEI history.

 

FEI History Snippets #1: President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Speech at Princeton University’s Commission of the Woodrow Wilson Building on May 11, 1966

FEI History Snippets #2: On May 17, 1968, John Macy, Chairman of the Civil Service Commission issued this memorandum announcing the establishment of the Federal Executive Institute.

FEI History Snippets #3: Tomorrow’s Challenge Today: The FEI’s Second Decade

FEI History Snippets #4: Perspective on the Federal Executive Institute

FEI History Snippets #5: Rebuilding a ‘Flagship’ for Executives

FEI History Snippets #6: FEI at Twenty: a Personal Retrospect

FEI History Snippets #7: Developing Leaders for the Future

FEI History Snippets #8: The Gore Commission

FEI History Snippets #9: A New Director and Renewed Directions

FEI History Snippets #10: Looking to the Future for the Leadership for a Democratic Society Program, Federal Executive Institute


 

FEI History Snippets #1: President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Speech at Princeton University’s Commission of the Woodrow Wilson Building on May 11, 1966


The Federal government experienced a rapid expansion as a result of the New Deal and World War II. By the 1950s, many in government began calling for a training program for the people who would lead this expanded federal workforce. The Government Employees Training Act of 1958 gave the President the authority to establish an academy to train these “civilian generals.” His speech [excerpted below] at Princeton University on May 11, 1966 officially began the process of creating the Federal Executive Institute.

There was once a time when knowledge seemed less essential to the process of government. Andrew Jackson held the opinion that the duties of all public offices were “so plain and simple” that any man of average intelligence could perform them. We are no longer so optimistic about our public service. The public servant today moves along the paths of adventure where he is helpless without the tools of advanced learning. He seeks to chart the exploration of space, combining a thousand disciplines in an effort whose slightest miscalculation could have fatal consequences. He has embarked on this planet on missions that are no less filled with risk and no less dependent on knowledge. He seeks to rebuild our cities and to reclaim the beauty of our countryside. He seeks to promote justice beyond our courtrooms, making education and health and opportunity the common birthright for every citizen. And he seeks to build peace based on man’s hopes rather than on man’s fears. These goals will be the work of many men and of many years. We are still wrestling to provide a world safe for democracy just as Wilson did more than 50 years ago. We are still fighting to gain the freedoms that Roosevelt talked about more than 30 years ago. All of these will call for enormous new drafts of trained manpower that will be available for public service.

I have asked Chairman John Macy of the Civil Service Commission to head a task force that will survey Federal programs for career advancement. I have asked him to study an expanded program of graduate training which, with the help of universities, can enlarge our efforts to develop the talents and broaden the horizons of our public service career officers.

 

 

 

FEI History Snippets #2: On May 17, 1968, John Macy, Chairman of the Civil Service Commission issued this memorandum announcing the establishment of the Federal Executive Institute.



MEMORANDUM TO HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS AND AGENCIES

Subject: Federal Executive Institute

In his memorandum of May 9, President Johnson announced the establishment of the Federal Executive Institute as an advanced study center for upper echelon executives. I want to move rapidly to carry out the plan for the Institute as described in the President’s announcement. In so doing, I look forward to working with you to assure its successful operation.

It would assist the Commission in the development of the Institute’s program if you would designate an official in your organization with whom there can be discussion on the selection criteria and procedure for attendance, curriculum plans and funding.

I have designated James R. Beck, Jr. to act as project coordinator.

 

 

FEI History Snippets #3: Tomorrow’s Challenge Today: The FEI’s Second Decade



In summer 1979, Alan K. Campbell, Director of the Office of Personnel Management, wrote an article in The Bureaucrat applauding FEI’s performance over the previous decade. He addressed the important role FEI played as one of few opportunities for those in the Senior Executive Service to continue their professional development. He also highlighted FEI’s mission teaching executives about the importance of people, as well as processes or equipment, in their organizations.

“Those who come here are the leaders who link the elected and appointed policy makers with the rest of the civil service system. This link is essential to an effective operation of the federal government.”

“The fact is, although executives make up less than one half of one percent of the federal civilian work force, they make or break the effectiveness of the other two million employees.”

“Aspirants to the executive ranks have found few opportunities to prepare for higher responsibilities.”

“What must be done is to develop a system that can deal with the total work force, in a way that will cause pride and belief in the work they are doing, and permeate the entire system.”

“Of course, it is the Federal Executive Institute which has a particular responsibility in that area. We see it coming to play in the next decade a much bigger role, a much stronger role, a role in planning for career development throughout the system. They will associate themselves with other training institutions-public and private, federal and non-federal- to develop the kind of program which will have relevance to the total executive needs of the federal government.

I believe we must begin to move in a direction where personnel management is seen as the heart of the total management system. Personnel people who see their role as that of enforcing procedural rituals should begin looking elsewhere for employment, because that is not what the new system is all about.

Indeed, the FEI will have to play an expanded part in fostering the teamwork, without which none of us can succeed. I think the first 10 years of the history of this institution indicates it clearly has the ability, the skill, and the commitment necessary to do that. I very much look forward to a close continuing association.”

 

FEI History Snippets #4: Perspective on the Federal Executive Institute

 

In the summer of 1979, Thomas P. Murphy and Chong M. Pak wrote an article in The Bureaucrat, giving their perspective on the FEI, where both had worked for a number of years. They explained the curriculum at FEI and what made this institution so unique. They then talked about the future of FEI and the challenges and opportunities it faced going into its second decade.


“The faculty and staff at the FEI over the past ten years have identified a clear set of executive development and adult educational goals and have pursued them rigorously. The institute programs are designed to do the following:

  • Promote active appreciation of the values of American constitutional democracy, such as the rule of law and the pursuit of human dignity
  • Foster understanding of, and dedication to, the responsibilities of public servants in a pluralistic and dynamic society
  • Develop and increase the executive’s ability to provide leadership, to process information, and to interact with others in creative decision making and administration
  • Facilitate the acquisition of knowledge relevant to the executive’s political, social, and economic environments- for example, knowledge of self, of interpersonal, group, and societal behavior, and of institutions and organizations (domestic and foreign).

In pursuit of these general goals, the FEI has outlined three specific areas of study which are essential to the promotion of overall executive effectiveness:

  • Interpersonal and Personal Executive Effectiveness
  • Management Systems and Processes
  • The Environment of Federal Executive Performance”


“However, whichever FEI program might be selected for an individual executive at a specific time, and whatever courses and workshops are taken, all participating executives work toward commonly recognized personal development objectives: improved understanding of executive roles, strengthened individual capabilities, increased knowledge of management systems, and an indepth understanding of national needs and priorities.”

“The FEI has no single, prescribed curriculum for everyone to follow. Instead, the approach is based on the belief that executive development is essentially self-development in which the individual involved must assume major responsibility for his/her own development.”

“But above all, the FEI is a dynamic institution. Throughout its existence, it has reorganized and restructured its existing programs and course offerings as a result of executive evaluations and faculty review in order to meet the ever-changing needs of its clientele.”

“Fiscal Year 1979 represents a year of special change for the FEI. During the year, the Federal Executive Institute will assess its accomplishments and plan new goals to be achieved in its second decade.”

“Fiscal Year 1979 is a year to review the successes of the past ten years in order to plan new innovative directions for the coming decade. These new horizons will include, first among other things, intensive efforts to promote even greater diversity among the executives who attend FEI programs.”

 

FEI History Snippets #5: Rebuilding a ‘Flagship’ for Executives

 


The excerpts below are taken from an article written by Judith Havemann, a Washington Post staff writer and originally published in that newspaper on October 12, 1987. In the article, she praises the work of Dr. Michael G. Hansen, who was then Director of the Federal Executive Institute. She highlights his commitment to high standards and his belief that executive training should be difficult.

 


”If this story were a college course taught by Dr. Michael G. Hansen, the political scientist who is the new director of the Federal Executive Institute in Charlottesville, he might begin by challenging his students to analyze what these officials have in common: senior adviser for gold policy; chief of the U.S. national central bureau of INTERPOL; director of toroidal (doughnut-shaped) confinement systems for the Energy Department; chief of the Forest Service; commissioner of the Navajo and Hopi Indian Relocation Commission; director of Food for Peace…One answer to these broader questions is the Federal Executive Institute in Virginia, the government’s residential training program for senior civil servants. It is, according to Constance Horner, Office of Personnel Management (OPM) director, “the sole institution available to give the SE a strong sense of itself and its place in the U.S. government.”


“In its early years, it was on the leading edge of executive development, according to James Colvard, OPM deputy director.”


“’Mike was real supportive,’ she said. ‘He was warm and friendly and at the same time really strict. He did not like it if anybody came in late, and he had a low threshold for not meeting deadlines and a low tolerance for anything that wasn’t the best.”


“’You want this degree to mean something?’ White recalled Hansen saying when the students moaned about the reading and papers required.”


“’I think executive development should be demanding,’ Hansen said, adding that, at the same time, “executive training must convey to participants that the government for which they work values them and that what they do is important.’”



FEI History Snippets #6: FEI at Twenty: a Personal Retrospect

 
Donald Nuechterlein was a founding member of the FEI faculty in 1968 and remained there until 1988. That spring, he wrote an article in The Bureaucrat to commemorate FEI’s upcoming 20th anniversary. In the article, he described the first class which included aspects of the program that still exist today. He also talked about what makes FEI unique among public and private executive training institutions.


The First Class

 
“The first session of the Federal Executive Institute opened on Sunday, October 13, 1968, with a ceremony on the back lawn. In attendance were CSC Chairman John Macy, University of Virginia President Edgar Shannon, former CSC Chairman Roger Jones, members and senior staff from the Civil Service Commission, and an assemblage of UVA deans and professors. Fifty-three federal executives, all but two being at supergrade level, greatly assisted in creating what has become one of the most innovative executive development programs in the United States. That first class understood that we were experimenting in a new field, and the interaction among faculty, staff, and federal executives was superb.”


“The theme of FEI’s program in the early days was the title of John Gardener’s then-recent book, Self Renewal. Sherwood and Macy believed that senior government executives needed encouragement to be away from their offices for a significant period of time in order to look seriously at themselves and their careers and to consider what changes they needed to make for the future. Gardener’s idea set the agenda for the FEI program, and during the first few years his book was mailed to participants in advance to help them understand our philosophy.”


“The FEI milieu was not only informal, it was casual. From the first, participants dressed casually and wore simple name tags showing only a name and government agency-no title, rank, or degrees. The California group believed in sensitivity training, then in vogue, and FEI offered it as an optional course during the first year. Small groups were also in vogue, and we therefore divided a class into seven and sometimes eight executive learning teams (ELTs) with no two persons from the same agency. (Since 1985 they have been called search teams.)”


“Another feature of the course that began in Session 1 was the “executive forum” in which members of the class took the first hour in the morning to relate to the class what their jobs entailed and how they managed in their organizations. Occasionally an exec would talk about an interesting hobby, or a debate on some major topic would be held. In those early, days, the Vietnam war was a consuming topic.”


Why FEI is ‘Special’

 
“First, FEI is the only training institution in the United States where senior government officials can be among a group of their peers in a residential setting for a significant span of time.”


“Second, FEI’s approach to executive development assumes that most participants know more than the faculty does about individual development needs.”


“Although this third factor can be exaggerated, there is little doubt that FEI’s location and facility have contributed much to the warm feelings most graduates have about their experience.”

FEI History Snippets #7: Developing Leaders for the Future

In June 1988, at a FEIAA retreat, FEI Director Michael G. Hansen presented his vision of what FEI would become as the Institute entered its third decade. The following excerpts were taken from a printed version of his presentation published in the Fall1988 edition of The Bureaucrat. He talked about the FEI’s expansion to Washington and the development of the Alumni Association Newsletter.


“The new approach emphasizes executive effectiveness: the executive roles and capabilities necessary for the ongoing achievement of organizational goals and objectives. Focus is on the role of the federal career executive as a leader. The emphasis is interagency and cross-functional with the Institute still committed to the development of broad-based generalist perspectives and skills. The approach is future oriented with content centered around the management of stakeholder relationships within and at agency boundaries: career-political; executive-legislative; public-private; federal-state-local; government and the public; uniformed civilian relations in the Defense Department; and horizontal and vertical relationships within agencies. The program is anchored in the concept of public service and the rule of law and examines authority relationships, ethics, and values that transcend a single branch of government. A key goal is to inculcate and reinforce a sense of responsibility to the broader public good.”


“Two University of Virginia interns are already at the Institute with arrangements completed to involve others from the Presidential Management Intern Program, the EPA Internship Program, and Galludet University.”


“In the next year FEI will establish its long-talked-about presence in Washington, what is being called ‘FEIDC.’ Desired for follow-on activities and networking opportunities after the four-week residential program in Charlottesville, FEIDC offerings will focus on change and transition through short one and two day courses, group problem solving activities, individual agency and program-focused change efforts, case analyses, and observation of and conversations and activities with key Washington policy actors.”


“This fall FEI also launches a newsletter to be sent to all alumni emphasizing developments in the programmatic areas emphasized by the Institute and the results of research it sponsors and conducts.”

 

FEI History Snippets #8: The Gore Commission

In 1993, President Clinton said he wanted to “reinvent government.” He charged Vice President Al Gore with making government less expensive and more efficient. Over the next six months the Gore Commission reviewed the Federal bureaucracy and gave Congress 384 recommendations for improving federal bureaucratic efficiency. The quotes below are taken from the Gore Commission’s review of FEI.

 


“The Federal Executive Institute since its inception in 1968 has been an integral part of first, the U.S. Civil Service Commission, and, subsequently, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Regardless of its location on the organization chart, the FEI has consistently and diligently maintained liaison with its organizational colleagues regarding such important matters as curriculum changes and development, changes in the executive workforce, new personnel management initiatives of special significance to federal managers, and changing requirements of customer agencies.”


“The Federal Executive Institute has, for the 25 years of its existence, served and has been recognized as the ‘capstone’ institution for senior executive development within the federal government.”
“Briefly put, the existence of the FEI mitigates against the development of redundant and less cost effective approaches to meeting a rather sharply defined—and somewhat limited—set of market needs for executive development training.”


“The FEI has special capabilities, and a long record of experience, in looking at emerging issues and trends, and the difficulties attendant in their specific formulation as policy proposals, and in their consequent implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.”


“The Federal Executive Institute can add two very different kinds of support to the Administration’s change initiatives:

  1. The FEI is an excellent forum for high level administration speakers to present their proposals for changes to one of the most important groups of people in the entire change process—senior executives who will be key players in the successful implementation of change plans. Ideas can be floated and tested in an academic environment both challenging and yet supportive, comprised of executives from the widest imaginable range of federal agencies and backgrounds.
  2. FEI’s special short programs, particularly its work team development programs and its political/career programs offer focused and targeted designs for grappling both with change ideas and the special challenges of implementation represented by those ideas.”

FEI History Snippets #9: FEI: A New Director and Renewed Directions

In Spring 1999, Barbara J. Garvin-Kester was the newly appointed director of FEI. She wrote an article in The Public Manager which talked about FEI’s strengths and some improvements she hoped to make as director. She valued FEI’s focus on developing the executives as leaders rather than training them for a job and planned to use strategic partnerships to regain public trust in government institutions. She also proposed the Applied Learning Program, a program which still exists at FEI.

 


“I have identified many positive elements at FEI, including a real intensity in the areas of quality, customer focus, and innovation.”


“FEI offers a progressive and innovative curriculum along with best-in-class service for its participants. Its curriculum focuses on developing the individual’s values of personal leadership correlated with the democratic values of the Constitution.”


“Unlike business executives, public servants must also manage democracy. As such, they need to obtain commitment—not just compliance—from their constituents and they can succeed only through their constituents and they can succeed only through their ability to influence others. Additionally, the FEI curriculum rests on holistic principles, attending to not only intellectual and financial concepts, but also to the individual’s physical and emotional health. By attending to the whole person, our executives learn how to lead and manage others in a holistic way.”
“We desire to be a dominant force in thought leadership and innovation, differentiating ourselves by our expertise in the government sector. By developing true strategic partnerships with all levels of leadership, we will be more successful in renewing the public’s faith in government through our efforts.”


“FEI’s greatest challenge is to ensure our curriculum aligns with the competencies required for success in these environments, addresses agency and bureau specific issues, and allows us to measure the impact/change that we bring to the individual’s organization.”


“Additional improvements may be to create a new program that subdivides our existing four-week program into several shorter sessions interspersed with on-the-job application and management responses to support the individual’s growth and organizational change. Early trials with this approach (i.e., our Applied Learning Program) have shown that two weeks in residence, followed by three months of application on the job and a final two-week session provides the same team bonding and networking benefits of the four-consecutive-week program.”

 

FEI History Snippets #10: Looking to the Future for the Leadership for a Democratic Society Program, Federal Executive Institute

In 2013, Matthew Stafford, FEI Dean of Faculty, wrote a paper outlining where FEI had come from, where it was, and where he hoped it would go. Stafford’s main goal was for FEI to return to the cutting edge position in the leadership development field. He planned to achieve this by retaining FEI’s underlying curriculum while ingraining the use of technology to begin the learning process before the executives arrived and continue it after they returned to their agencies.

 


“The LDS program has a rich and respected history for offering top-notch, executive leadership-development for many years.”


“The current program is a 4-week, resident program aligned along four key themes: “Values-Based Leadership”; “Transforming Organizations”; “Policy in a Constitutional System” and “Global Perspectives.”


“Further, given the remarkable progress that has been made in leadership theory and development in just the past two decades, FEI leaders have recognized a need to revise the program substantially to return it to the cutting-edge position in the field that it once held.”


“FEI is not seeking an expansion of the resident period for its LDS program. Yet more time is needed if LDS is going to achieve the results that FEI desires. Ongoing work to create distance-learning capabilities will support the temporal expansion of LDS in two ways – both before and after the resident experience.”


“To facilitate FEI’s continuing effort to remain on the cutting edge of leadership development, special time periods will be identified within each LDS schedule for “Project X” presentations. These will be experimental learning opportunities, offering either new ideas or theories. Through the identification of these experimental periods, FEI will ensure that leadership researchers and relevant presenters are offered a continuing opportunity to share “the latest and greatest” with FEI’s matriculating executives.”


“After an intense review of existing procedures, policies and products, the leadership that came on board in 2012 has moved out in a variety of different directions to enhance every aspect of the Institute’s mission.”


“FEI was created to serve as a vehicle for positive change in the Federal Government. It is applying the lessons it teaches to reinvent itself to better serve OPM, the Federal Government but most importantly, the American people who are at the very heart of all that the Institute provides.”






 

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